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数控加工中心的近代工业文明发展史

日期:2017-08-10 作者(zhe): 人气:1540

数控(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心是(shi)当前机械加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领(ling)域中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)应用最为广泛(fan)的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机床(chuang)类机械,在(zai)将(jiang)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)推移到上世纪初,当时(shi)(shi)虽(sui)然也有类似加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心类的(de)机床(chuang)产品,但都(dou)相当的(de)原始(shi),更谈不(bu)上采用当今数控(kong)形(xing)式的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心来进行运作了,回顾百年我(wo)们不(bu)难发现,如今的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心产品,其实在(zai)很多(duo)的(de)原理和加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)方(fang)面还是(shi)和加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)原始(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)有着(zhe)异(yi)曲同(tong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)之妙,如今更多(duo)的(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业行业专(zhuan)家更多(duo)的(de)会将(jiang)数控(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心专(zhuan)业的(de)称为CNC加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心。

 

回顾(gu)历史我(wo)(wo)们可以(yi)知道,世(shi)界上第一(yi)台正(zheng)式(shi)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)车(che)床(chuang)诞生(sheng)(sheng)于上世(shi)纪(ji)的(de)50年(nian)代左(zuo)右(you),当时(shi)美(mei)国(guo)帕森(sen)斯公司(si)接(jie)受美(mei)国(guo)空军委(wei)托(tuo)制造(zao)飞机(ji)(ji)的(de)螺旋桨加工(gong)设(she)备(bei),因为(wei)精(jing)度要求(qiu)较高,必须有计算机(ji)(ji)来进行(xing)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)这时(shi)候该公司(si)在(zai)美(mei)国(guo)麻(ma)省理(li)工(gong)学(xue)院(MIT)伺服(fu)机(ji)(ji)构研究室(shi)的(de)协助下才开始(shi)(shi)了数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加工(gong)的(de)应用,在(zai)1952年(nian)试(shi)制成(cheng)功的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加工(gong)机(ji)(ji)械发(fa)明了,在(zai)过了5年(nian)左(zuo)右(you)的(de)完善1957年(nian)这种加工(gong)设(she)备(bei)被(bei)正(zheng)式(shi)投(tou)入使用,这也是(shi)现代加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)基本(ben)雏形(xing),当时(shi)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)国(guo)内也是(shi)工(gong)业发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)兴(xing)起时(shi)代在(zai)1958年(nian)左(zuo)右(you)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)也对(dui)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)加工(gong)设(she)备(bei)进行(xing)研制开发(fa),此后在(zai)随着20世(shi)纪(ji)中(zhong)后期电子技术(shu)的(de)高速发(fa)展(zhan)数(shu)(shu)字化(hua)信(xin)号(hao)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)运动(dong)的(de)加工(gong)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制方式(shi)变的(de)越来越成(cheng)熟(shu),在(zai)此以(yi)后,从1960年(nian)开始(shi)(shi),其他一(yi)些工(gong)业国(guo)家,如德(de)国(guo)、日本(ben)都陆(lu)续开发(fa)、生(sheng)(sheng)产及使用了数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)。

 

在(zai)时(shi)间到(dao)(dao)(dao)了(le)1960年(nian)左右(you)很多(duo)(duo)机(ji)械(xie)工(gong)业生产大国开始批量(liang)的(de)生产配有(you)晶体管数(shu)(shu)控系统(tong)的(de)三坐标(biao)数(shu)(shu)控铣床(chuang),到(dao)(dao)(dao)了(le)1965年(nian)以(yi)(yi)后(hou)(hou),点位控制的(de)数(shu)(shu)控加工(gong)设备得到(dao)(dao)(dao)了(le)迅速发展(zhan)(zhan),同时(shi)也(ye)迅速的(de)推(tui)动了(le)坐标(biao)镗(tang)床(chuang)、数(shu)(shu)控铣床(chuang)、冲(chong)床(chuang)的(de)大量(liang)发展(zhan)(zhan),随(sui)着数(shu)(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)不(bu)断深入(ru)数(shu)(shu)控加工(gong)中心(xin)也(ye)开始逐(zhu)渐(jian)开始成熟,在(zai)后(hou)(hou)来一种具有(you)自动换刀装(zhuang)置的(de)数(shu)(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang),它能实现工(gong)件一次装(zhuang)卡而进行多(duo)(duo)工(gong)序(xu)的(de)加工(gong)并且可以(yi)(yi)缩短(duan)机(ji)床(chuang)上零件的(de)装(zhuang)卸(xie)时(shi)间和更换刀具的(de)时(shi)间,这(zhei)就(jiu)是现在(zai)数(shu)(shu)控加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)基本形状,在(zai)到(dao)(dao)(dao)了(le)上世纪60年(nian)代的(de)后(hou)(hou)期英国的(de)机(ji)床(chuang)制造业界把几台(tai)数(shu)(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang)连接成具有(you)柔性的(de)加工(gong)系统(tong),而微(wei)处理(li)器(qi)直接用于数(shu)(shu)控机(ji)床(chuang),使数(shu)(shu)控的(de)软(ruan)件功能加强(qiang)。

 

在到(dao)了80年代左右(you),西方加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业机(ji)(ji)械较(jiao)为(wei)(wei)发(fa)达的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)国(guo)家(jia)开(kai)始(shi)出(chu)现了1~4台加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)或车削中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)为(wei)(wei)主体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)床加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin),从(cong)(cong)此数(shu)控加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)慢(man)慢(man)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开(kai)始(shi)从(cong)(cong)中(zhong)(zhong)小批量(liang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)向大批量(liang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)展,到(dao)了目前为(wei)(wei)止数(shu)控加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)已经(jing)成(cheng)为(wei)(wei)数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)床中(zhong)(zhong)一种非常重要的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)(ji)种。纵观未来(lai),随着电(dian)子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展以(yi)及(ji)微电(dian)子技术在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)应(ying)用(yong)成(cheng)熟度,数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自动化(hua)程(cheng)度也(ye)更(geng)(geng)为(wei)(wei)提(ti)高,一些新(xin)兴的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方式例如多工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)以(yi)及(ji)激光(guang)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等都开(kai)始(shi)融入了数(shu)控加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)械加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领域,从(cong)(cong)而形成(cheng)了更(geng)(geng)为(wei)(wei)综合的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)(xin)单元体(ti),加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序更(geng)(geng)为(wei)(wei)可(ke)靠更(geng)(geng)有效率,稳定性则变(bian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)更(geng)(geng)强。


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